Category Archives: Electronics

Potential Difference

What is Potential Difference?

Potential difference can be simply defined as the difference of electrical potential between two points. When two positive charges when brought close to each other, they repel. When two negative charges are brought close to each other, they also repel. But when a positive and a negative charge brought close together, they attract each other. When …

Electric Current

What is Electric Current?

Electric current is the flow of electric charge (charged particles) through a conductor with respect to time. The process is similar to flowing of a river in one direction. Electric current is measured by the number of “free electrons” passing a particular point in a circuit per second. So we can conclude and define electric current …

Structure of an Atom

During our school days, we all studied in science that atoms are made up of 3 particles – electrons, protons, and neutrons. The arrangement of electrons and protons are different in different elements. We also learnt that electrons are negatively charged (-) and revolve around the nucleus of the atom in concentric paths called orbits. Protons are …

Electronics History Timeline (600 BC to 2007)

Electronics is the branch of science that deals with the study of flow and control of electrons (electricity) and the study of their behavior and effects in vacuums, gases, and semiconductors, and with devices using such electrons. This control of electrons is accomplished by devices that resist, carry, select, steer, switch, store, manipulate, and exploit the electron.

Definition of Electronics:

Lead-Free (Pb-Free) Solder and Composition

Lead-Free Solder: Solder with NO Lead (Pb). Lead-Free is taking rapid momentum around the world after the EU (European Union) Directives to wipe off lead (Poison) from electronic soldering considering its health and environmental effects

RoHS: Restriction of Hazardous Substances [ lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), hexavalent chromium (CrVI), polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE).]…

All about Semiconductor

A semiconductor can be defined as a substance with properties of a conductor and insulator (electricity).

A semiconductor can conduct electricity under certain circumstances but not always. This property of a semiconductor makes it a good medium to use electricity in a controlled manner as and where required.

Conductance of a semiconductor depends on several factors such as …

Top 10 Consumer Electronics Companies in the World

Consumer electronics has become a part of our everyday life. Electronics products and gadgets in the group of consumer electronics include all such electronic equipments that we use in our everyday life – entertainment, communication and other home and office electronic equipments and gadgets. Personal computers, laptops , television, telephones, mobile cell phones, MP3 players, MP4 players, audio …

How Electronic / Electrical Circuit Works

Electric charge is nothing but flow of electrons from one object to another. We all know that an atom is made up of electrons, protons and neutrons (look at the diagram on the right that explains the structure of an atom).

Electrons are negatively charged and protons are positively charged while neutrons are neutrally charged. At the same time the …

Ball Grid Array (BGA) Package

Ball Grid Array or BGA is a surface-mount package (with no leads) utilizing an array of metal spheres (solder balls) for electrical interconnection. BGA solder balls are attached to a laminated substrate at the bottom of the package. The die of the BGA is connected to the substrate by wire bonding or flip-chip technology. The BGA substrate has internal conductive …

SMT Troubleshooting (SMT / SMD Problem and Solution)

SMT (Surface Mount Technology), like other SMD Soldering and PCB assembly technology is not ZERO-Defect soldering process. There will always be some or the other defect in any Electronics PCB assembly in both Thru-Hole and SMT.

Here I will discuss some of the most common faults and causes of SMT defects and possible solution and troubleshooting.

Common Faults in SMT:

SMT Repair and Inspection Equipment

Equipment unique to surface mounting includes inspection and repair / rework equipment. Inspection equipment for surface mounting in electronics has not matured yet. There are two main types of automated inspection equipment on the market: x-ray and laser. However, most electronic companies depend on visual inspection at 2 to 10X, using either microscope of magnifying lamp.

Repair / Rework equipment …

SMT Curing / Baking Oven for SMT Soldering

There are three types of Surface Mounting: Type 1, Type II and Type III.

For Type III surface mount, components glued to the bottom of the board require curing before wave soldering. In addition, electronic components placed on the solder paste in Type I and Type II Surface Mount Technology assemblies achieve reduced solder defects (such as solder balls) by …

SMT Reflow Soldering Equipment / Machine

A reflow soldering equipment / machine is the second major equipment after pick-and-place machine in any SMT line.

There are many reflow soldering methods and each method has advantages and disadvantages. Equipment cost, maintenance cost and yield are some of the leading decision factors.

The most widely used reflow processes in electronics are: vapor phase and infrared.

Vapor phase process …

SMT Solvent Cleaning Equipment / Machine To Clean Flux with Water

After soldering, the electronic assemblies must be cleaned to remove excess solder flux. The subjects of flux and cleaning are closely intertwined. The selection of solvent and cleaning equipment depends of the flux used and the cleanliness requirements.

The cleaning process has received considerable attention because of efforts to eliminate chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone depleting chemicals. CFCs were …

SMT Solder Paste Screen Printer Machine for Solder Paste Screen Printing

A Solder Paste Screen Printer for SMT is needed to screen solder paste onto the printed circuit board (PCB) before placement of surface mount components.

Solder Paste Screen Printer for SMT have been widely used in electronics by the PCB industry for screen solder mask. This equipment / machine has also been extensively used in the hybrid industry for screening …