Electric Current

What is Electric Current?

Electric current is the flow of electric charge (charged particles) through a conductor with respect to time. The process is similar to flowing of a river in one direction. Electric current is measured by the number of “free electrons” passing a particular point in a circuit per second. So we can conclude and define electric current as flow of charge per unit second.

The SI unit of charge (not current) is coulomb. 1 coulomb = quantity of electricity carried in 1 second by a current of 1 ampere.

The SI (International System of Units) unit of current is the ampere (A). A constant current has symbol “I”. Time-varying current has a symbol “i”.

A current of one ampere = 1 coulomb of charge passing a given point per second. In general, charge Q is determined by steady current I flowing for a time t as Q = It.

Charge-Current Formula

Charge-Current Formula

Electron flow is in the opposite direction from negative to positive. Electric current flows in the direction of positive charge i.e positive to negative. In a circuit, flow of positive current is marked by an arrow. In a conductor metal like copper or aluminum, only negatively charged free electrons move to produce a electric current. Positively charged protons can not move. But in a gas or liquid, both the protons (+) and electrons (-) move to produce a flow of current.

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