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Capacitor: A capacitor is an electrical device characterized by its capacity to store an electric charge. A capacitor is a passive electrical component that can store energy in the electric field between a pair of conductors (called "plates").

In simple words, we can say that a capacitor is a device used to store and release electricity, usually as the result of a chemical action. Also referred to as a storage cell, a secondary cell, a condenser or an accumulator. A Leyden Jar was an early example of a capacitor.


Capacitors are another element used to control the flow of charge in a circuit. The name derives from theirCapacitor capacity to store charge, rather like a small battery. Capacitors consist of two conducting surfaces separated by an insulator; a wire lead is connected to each surface.

You can imagine a capacitor as two large metal plates separated by air, although in reality they usually consist of thin metal foils or films separated by plastic film or another solid insulator, and rolled up in a compact package. Consider connecting a capacitor across a battery.

As soon as the connection is made charge flows from the battery terminals, along the wire and onto the plates, positive charge on one plate, negative charge on the other. Why? The like-sign charges on each terminal want to get away from each other. In addition to that repulsion, there is an attraction to the opposite-sign charge on the other nearby plate. Initially the current is large, because in a sense the charges can not tell immediately that the wire does not really go anywhere, that there is no complete circuit of wire. The initial current is limited by the resistance of the wires, or perhaps by a real resistor. But as charge builds up on the plates, charge repulsion resists the flow of more charge and the current is reduced. Eventually, the repulsive force from charge on the plate is strong enough to balance the force from charge on the battery terminal, and all current stops.

The existence of the separated charges on the plates means there must be a voltage between the plates, and this voltage be equal to the battery voltage when all current stops. After all, since the points are connected by conductors, they should have the same voltage; even if there is a resistor in the circuit, there is no voltage across the resistor if the current is zero, according to Ohm's law. The amount of charge that collects on the plates to produce the voltage is a measure of the value of the capacitor, its capacitance, measured in farads (f). The relationship is C = Q/V , where Q is the charge in Coulombs. Large capacitors have plates with a large area to hold lots of charge, separated by a small distance, which implies a small voltage. A one farad capacitor is extremely large, and generally we deal with microfarads ( µf ), one millionth of a farad, or picofarads (pf), one trillionth (10-12) of a farad.

Consider the   circuit of Fig. 1 again. Suppose we cut the wires after all current has stopped flowing. The charge on the plates is now trapped, so there is still a voltage between the terminal wires. The charged capacitor looks somewhat like a battery now. If we connected a resistor across it, current would flow as the positive and negative charges raced to neutralize each other.

 

A simple capacitor connected to a battery through a resistor
 Fig - 1 : A simple capacitor connected to a battery through a resistor

Unlike a battery, there is no mechanism to replace the charge on the plates removed by the current, so the voltage drops, the current drops, and finally there is no net charge left and no voltage differences anywhere in the circuit. The behavior in time of the current, the charge on the plates, and the voltage looks just like the graph in Fig. 2.

The time dependence of the current in the circuit
Fig - 2 : The time dependence of the current in the circuit

This curve is an exponential function: exp(-t/RC) . The voltage, current, and charge fall to about 37% of their starting values in a time of R ×C seconds, which is called the characteristic time or the time constant of the circuit. The RC time constant is a measure of how fast the circuit can respond to changes in conditions, such as attaching the battery across the uncharged capacitor or attaching a resistor across the charged capacitor. The voltage across a capacitor cannot change immediately; it takes time for the charge to flow, especially if a large resistor is opposing that flow. Thus, capacitors are used in a circuit to damp out rapid changes of voltage.

Combinations of Capacitors: Like resistors, capacitors can be joined together in two basic ways: parallel and series. It should be obvious from the physical construction of capacitors that connecting two together in parallel results in a bigger capacitance value. A parallel connection results in bigger capacitor plate area, which means they can hold more charge for the same voltage. Thus, the formula for total capacitance in a parallel circuit is: CT=C1+C2...+Cn ,

the same form of equation for resistors in series, which can be confusing unless you think about the physics of what is happening.

The capacitance of a series connection is lower than any capacitor because for a given voltage across the entire group, there will be less charge on each plate. The total capacitance in a series circuit is : CT={1{1C1}+{1C2}...+{1Cn}}.

Again, this is easy to confuse with the formula for parallel resistors, but there is a nice symmetry here.

Learn More on Basics of Electronics:

Electronics Definitions: Electronics is the branch of science that deals with the study of flow and control of electrons (electricity) and the study of their behavior and effects in vacuums, gases, and semiconductors, and with devices using such electrons.

What is an electronic circuit? A circuit is a structure that directs and controls electric currents, presumably to perform some useful function. The very name "circuit" implies that the structure is closed, something like a loop.

Rules of Electrical Circuits: * A voltage of 1V across a resistance of 1 Ohm will cause a current flow of 1 Amp, and the resistor will dissipate 1 Watt (all as heat).

Wiring Symbols: There are many different representations for basic wiring symbols, and these are the most common.  The conventions I use for wires crossing and joining are marked with a star (*) - the others are a small sample of those in common use, but are fairly representative.  Many can be worked out from their position in the circuit diagram (schematic).

Voltage: Voltage is something is a type of "pressure" that drives electrical charges through a circuit.
Bodies with
opposite charges attract, they exert a force on each other pulling them together. The magnitude of the force is proportional to the product of the charge on each mass.

What is charge?  Charge may be defined as the quantity of unbalanced electricity in a body (either positive or negative) and construed as an excess or deficiency of electrons. Charge comes in two forms, positive (+) , and  negative charge ( - ) .

Current: Charge is mobile and can flow freely in certain materials, called conductors. Metals and a few other elements and compounds are conductors. Materials that charge cannot flow through are called insulators. Air, glass, most plastics, and rubber are insulators, for example. And then there are some materials called semiconductors, that seemed to be good conductors sometimes but much less so other times. Silicon and germanium are two such materials. The flow of charge is called electrical current. Current is measured in amperes (a), amps for short (named after another French scientist who worked mostly with magnetic effects).

Batteries: Charges can be separated by several means to produce a voltage. A battery uses a chemical reaction to produce energy and separate opposite sign charges onto its two terminals. As the charge is drawn off by an external circuit, doing work and finally returning to the opposite terminal, more chemicals in the battery react to restore the charge difference and the voltage. The particular type of chemical reaction used determines the voltage of the battery, but for most commercial batteries the voltage is about 1.5 V per chemical section or cell.

Resistors: A Resistor is an electrical device that resists the flow of electrical current. It is a passive device used to control, or impede the flow of, electric current in an electric circuit by providing resistance, thereby developing a drop in voltage across the device. The value of a resistor is measured in ohms and represented by the Greek letter capital omega. Resistors usually have a brown cylindrical body with a wire lead on each end, and colored bands that indicate the value of the resistor.

Ohm’s Law: Ohm's law describes the relationship between voltage, V , which is trying to force charge to flow, resistance, R , which is resisting that flow, and the actual resulting current I .

Power: Power is the Electric energy produced per unit time.

Inductors: An inductor is an electrical device (typically a conducting coil) that introduces inductance into a circuit. An inductor is a passive electrical component designed to provide inductance in a circuit. It is basically a coil of wire wrapped around an iron core. simplest form an inductor is made up of a coil of wire. The inductance measured in henrys, is proportional to the number of turns of wire, the wire loop diameter and the material or core the wire is wound around.

Semiconductor devices: A conductor made with semiconducting material. Semiconductors are made up of a substance with electrical properties intermediate between a good conductor and a good insulator. A semiconductor device conducts electricity poorly at room temperature, but has increasing conductivity at higher temperatures. Metalloids are usually good semiconductors.

Silicon: Silicon, atomic number 14 on the periodic table, is a semiconducting material from which integrated circuits (computer chips of all types--processors, memory chips, etc.; CCDs; transistors; etc.) are created.

Silicon is one of the most common elements. Silicon is also the semiconductor material out of which almost all modern transistors are made.

Diodes: A Diode is an electronic device that allows current to flow in one direction only. It is a semiconductor that consists of a p-n junction. They are used most commonly to convert AC to DC, because they pass the positive part of the wave, and block the negative part of the AC signal, or, if they are reversed, they pass only the negative part and not the positive part.

Electronic Component name abbreviations: Here is a list of Electronic Component name abbreviations widely used in the electronics industry.

What is Energy Star?

Home Electrical Wiring Types and Rules

Surface Mount Device (SMD) or Surface Mount Electronic Components

SMD Capacitor – Surface Mount Chip Capacitor Guide

All about Semiconductor

Ball Grid Array (BGA) Package

SMD Surface Mount Electronic Components for SMT

How to Solder – Hand Soldering Tutorial

Printed Circuit Board: Design, Diagram and Assembly

Active and Passive Electronic Components

Electronic Components, Parts and Their Function

How Electronic / Electrical Circuit Works

How to Generate Electricity – How is Electricity Generated
 

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