Glossary and Definition of Electronics Terms with Meaning Explained in Detail.
Electronics Dictionary with Glossary and Definition of Electronics Terms with Meaning Explained in Detail.
What is Electronics?
Electronics is the branch of science that deals with the study of flow and control of electrons (electricity) and the study of their behavior and effects in vacuums, gases, and semiconductors, and with devices using such electrons. This control of electrons is accomplished by devices that resist, carry, select, steer, switch, store, manipulate, and exploit the electron.
Here are the Most Commonly used Terms and their definition and meaning used in Electronics and Electronics Engineering:
Ampere. Unit of Electric Current.
Alternating Current or Direct Current. Two types of Electric Current.
Analog-to-Digital Converter. An electronic integrated circuit or system used to convert analog signals to digital signals or binary (1 and 0).
Automatic flow controller. Used in controlling the flow of gasses under pressure into a vacuum system.
Automatic gain control. A type of circuit in an amplifier to maintain a suitable signal amplitude at its output, despite variation of the signal amplitude at the input.
AM / FM
AM = Amplitude Modulation. AM technology works by modulating the amplitude of the signal transmitted according to the information being sent, while the frequency remains constant.
FM = Frequency Modulation. FM technology works by encoding the information by varying the frequency of the wave and the amplitude remains constant.
Antilogarithm. The number of which a given number is the logarithm.
Power gain. Ratio of an output power to an input power.
Automatic phase control. A device that protects from over voltage and also does quality control.
Voltage gain. Ratio of the signal amplitude or power at the output port to the amplitude or power at the input port.
Automatic volume control. Automatically adjusts the volume of an audio signal to make the audio signal better heard.
American wire gauge. Standardized American wire gauge system for the diameters of round, solid, nonferrous, electrically conducting wire.
Alternating current. Electric current that periodically reverses its direction many times a second.
Analog to digital. In electronics, an analog-to-digital converter is a system that converts an analog signal into a digital signal.
Audio frequency. A frequency in the range 20 hertz to 20 000 hertz.
Automatic frequency control. A circuit to automatically keep a resonant circuit tuned to the frequency of an incoming radio signal.
Ampere hour. The amount of charge in a battery that will allow one ampere of current to flow for one hour.
Amplitude modulation. The modulation of a wave by varying its amplitude.
Current gain. The ratio of output current vs input current.
Flux density. The number of magnetic lines of flux that pass through a certain point on a surface.
Binary coded decimal. A number represented using the binary coded decimal system.
Beat frequency oscillator. A special oscillator used to create an audio frequency signal from Morse code radiotelegraphy transmissions to make them audible.
Bipolar junction transistor. A type of transistor that uses both electrons and holes as charge carriers.
Bandwidth. In terms of computing, bandwidth is the maximum rate of data transfer across a given path. In terms of electronics, bandwidth is a range of frequencies within a given band, in particular that used for transmitting a signal.
Centi (10-2). A unit prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of one hundredth.
Computer aided design. The process of creating a technical drawing with the use of computer software.
Computer aided manufacturing. Using computer software and computer-controlled machinery to automate a manufacturing process.
Common base configuration. Configuration where the base terminal of a transistor is a common to both the input and output signals.
In Electronics Dictionary, CB is defined as Citizen’s band. A land mobile radio system.
Common collector. Configuration where the collector terminal of a transistor is a common to both the input and output signals.
Common emitter. Configuration where the Emitter terminal of a transistor is a common to both the input and output signals.
Circular mil. Unit of area equal to area of a circle with a diameter of one mil (1/1/000 inch).
Central processing unit. The main IC of a computer, tablet, smartphone or high-end electronic gadgets, that does all the main data processing work.
Coulomb. The SI unit of electric charge.
Junction diode. A semiconductor diode in which a PN-junction is formed by fusing N-type material with a P-type material for doing rectification work. All solar cells are junction diodes.
Cathode ray Oscilloscope. An electronic test instrument to obtain waveform of different input signals. Also called Oscillograph.
Cathode ray tube. A high-vacuum tube that produces cathode rays phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images on TV or Computer Screen.
Total capacitance. Total capacitance of all the capacitors connected in series or parallel.
Deci (10-1). A decimal unit prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of one tenth.
D/A or D-A
Digital to Analog. In electronics, a digital-to-analog converter converts a digital signal into an analog signal.
Direct current. Electric current flowing only in one direction.
Dual in-line package. A rectangular electronic component with parallel pins on both sides. These packages can be soldered directly to the PCB or inserted in a socket.
Digital Multimeter. A test and measurement tool with a digital display to measure electrical values like voltage (volts), current (amps) and resistance (ohms).
Double pole double throw. A special switch with 2 inputs and 4 outputs.
Diode transistor logic. Digital circuits where logic gates use both diodes and transistors.
E DC or Erms
Difference in potential. The amount of work done in carrying a unit charge from one point to another in an electric field.
Instantaneous difference in potential.
Electrocardiogram. A test to check functioning of heart by measuring the electrical activity of the heart in the form of impulse or wave.
Emitter coupled logic. A high-speed integrated circuit bipolar transistor logic family.
Extremely high frequency. Radio frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum from 30 to 300 gigahertz (GHz).
Extra high voltage. Voltage of 230 kV and above.
Extremely low frequency. Radio waves with frequencies from 3 to 30 Hz.
Electromotive force. Electrical action produced by a non-electrical source.
Electromagnetic interference. Disturbance caused by an external source that affects an electrical circuit by electromagnetic induction, electrostatic coupling, or conduction.
Electronic warfare. Using electromagnetic spectrum to affect enemy spectrum in a warfare.
Field effect transistor. An electronic component that uses an electric field to control the flow of current.
Flip Flop. A two-state device to store binary data.
Filament. A conducting wire with a high melting point used in an electric bulb or thermionic valve.
Frequency modulation. Encoding of information in a carrier wave by varying the instantaneous frequency of the wave.
Frequency at resonance. The tendency of a system to oscillate at maximum amplitude at certain frequencies.
frequency-shift keying. A digital modulation technique in which the frequency of the carrier signal varies according to the digital signal changes.
Full scale deflection. The full range of motion of an analog needle of an analog meter, or a galvanometer.
Gravitational force. Force that attracts any two objects with mass.
Conductance. Ease at which electric charge to flow in a certain conductor or circuit.
Giga (109 ). A unit prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of a billion.
Henry. SI unit of electrical inductance.
Magnetic field intensity. Ratio of the MMF needed to create a certain Flux Density within a particular material per unit length of that material.
Magnetizing flux. The number of magnetic field lines passing through a surface.
hecto (102 ). A decimal unit prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of one hundred.
Hybrid. Combination of two or more different elements and having characteristics of both or all.
High frequency. Radio frequency between 3 to 30 megahertz (MHz)
Horsepower. A unit of measurement of power, or the rate at which work is done. 1 hp = 746 watts.
Hertz. A unit of frequency of one cycle per second.
Current. The rate of flow of electric charge past a point.
Instantaneous current. The amount of charge passing through through a conductor at a time.
DC Base current. Base current of bipolar NPN transistor.
DC Collector current. Collector current of bipolar NPN transistor.
Integrated circuit. Assembly of active and passive electronic components in a single chip to perform multiple tasks.
Total emitter current of a bipolar NPN transistor.
Effective current. The value of AC Current that would give the same amount of heat / energy as that of DC Current at the same time interval.
Intermediate frequency. The frequency to which a radio signal is converted during heterodyne reception.
Infrared. A type of radiant energy invisible to human eyes but can be sensed as heat.
Junction field effect transistor. Simplest type of semiconductor transistor with three terminals widely used in electronically controlled switches, voltage-controlled resistors and amplifiers.
Coefficient of coupling.
Kilo (103 ). In Electronics Dictionary, Kilo is defined as a decimal unit prefix in the metric system denoting multiplication by one thousand.
Kilohertz. a measurement of frequency equivalent to 1,000 cycles per second.
Kilovolt. 1000 volts ( 103 ).
Kilovoltampere. 1kVA = 1000VA. A unit of power in an electric circuit equal to 1000 volt-amperes.
Kilowatt. 1kW – 1000 Watts. A Unit of Electric Power equal to 1000 Watts.
Kilowatt-hour. A a unit of energy where one kilowatt (1 kW) of power utilized for one hour (1 h) of time.
Coil, inductance. In electronics, a coil or inductor is a conductive wire carrying electricity wound around a core made of a magnetic material, like iron to produce a magnetic field or inductance.
Inductance is the ratio between the induced voltage and the rate of change of the current.
Capacitance is the capability of an element to store electric charge per unit voltage.
Liquid crystal display. A form of visual display with a layer of a liquid crystal used in electronic devices as display.
Inductance is the ratio between the induced voltage and the rate of change of the current.
Capacitance is the capability of an element to store electric charge per unit voltage.
Resistance is the measure of the opposition to current flow in an electrical circuit measure in ohms (Ω)
Light-dependent resistor. An LDR or photoresistor is an electronic component with variable resistance that changes with intensity of light falling on it.
Light emitting diode. A semiconductor light source that emits light when current flows through it.
In Electronics Dictionary, LF = Low frequency. Radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 30 kilohertz (kHz) to 300 kHz.
In Electronics Dictionary, LM = Mutual inductance. The property of an electric circuit which permits mutual induction.
Low noise amplifier. An amplifier that amplifies a very low-power signal without much degradation of its signal-to-noise ratio.
Local oscillator. In electronics, it is used with a mixer to change the frequency of a signal.
Large scale integration. Technology used to manufacture powerful microchips or integrated circuits (IC) in small sizes.
Total inductance. The sum of the individual inductors connected in series or parallel.
Mega (106 ). A unit prefix in metric systems of units denoting a factor of one million.
Mutual conductance. The electrical characteristic relating the current through the output of a device to the voltage across the input of a device.
Mutual inductance. Property of a coil due to oppose the change of current in the neighboring coil.
Milli (10-3 ). A unit prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of one thousandth.
Milliampere. A measure for small electric currents i.e. one thousandth of an ampere.
Magnetron. A high-powered vacuum tube that works as a self-excited microwave oscillator.
Medium frequency. Frequency in the range of 300 kHz and 3 MHz.
Millihenry. A unit of inductance equal to one thousandth of a henry.
Megahertz. A unit of frequency equal to one million hertz.
Magnetomotive force. Magnetic potential or property of a substance that rise magnetic field.
Milliwatt. A unit of power equal to one thousandth of a watt.
Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor. A semiconductor device widely used in electronic devices for switching and amplifying electronic signals.
Microprocessor unit. A computer processor unit on a single integrated circuit (IC) that performs major data processing work.
Medium scale integrated circuit. Integrated Circuit (IC) with hundreds of transistors embedded in one single chipset.
Millivolt. One thousandth of a volt.
Number of turns in an inductor.
Revolutions per minute.
Nano (10-9). A unit prefix meaning one billionth.
Nanoampere. An SI unit of electrical current equal to 10-9 amperes.
No – connection.
Nanofarad. An SI unit of electrical capacitance equal to 10-9 farads
Nanohenry. A unit of electrical inductance equal to 10-9 henries.
Nanometer (10-9). One thousand-millionth of a meter.
Negative-positive-negative. Transistors with three-terminal that can function as am amplifier or switch.
Nanosecond. An SI unit of time equal to one thousand-millionth of a second or 10-9 seconds.
Nanowatt. A unit of power equal to one billionth of a watt. or 10-9 Watts.
Operational amplifier. An amplifier with high gain and high input impedance used in electronic circuits to perform mathematical calculations on an input voltage.
Instantaneous power. P=VI where P = Power, V = Instantaneous Voltage and I = Current.
Positive / Peak.
Public address or power amplifier.
Picoampere. An SI unit of current equal to 10-12 amperes.
Programmable Array Logic. A type of Programmable Logic Device used to perform a particular logical function.
Pulse amplitude modulation. A Type of analog pulse / signal modulation where the information is encoded in the amplitude of a series of signal pulses.
Apparent power. The product of the rms values of voltage and current and measured in kVA or MVA.
Average power. Average work done or Energy transferred per unit time.
Pulse-code modulation. A pulse modulation technique in which the amplitude of an analogue signal is converted to a binary value represented as a series of pulses.
Pulse-duration modulation. A modulation technique for encoding the amplitude of a signal right into a pulse width or duration of another signal, usually a carrier signal, for transmission.
Picofarad. A unit of capacitance equal to one trillionth (10-12) of a farad.
Programmable Logic Device. An electronic device used to build reconfigurable digital circuits.
Phase locked loop. A control system to generate an output signal whose phase is related to the phase of an input signal.
Phase modulation, also Permanent magnet.
Positive-negative-positive. A transistor in which an n-type terminal is sandwiched between two p-type terminals.
Potentiometer. An instrument to measure electromotive force.
Peak to peak. Measured between the greatest peaks of a periodically varying quantity.
Pulse-position modulation. A form of signal modulation in which M message bits are encoded by transmitting a single pulse in one of possible required time shifts.
Pulse repetition frequency. The number of pulses of a repeating signal in a specific time unit, measured in pulses per second.
Pulse repetition time. The time between the beginning of one pulse and the start of the next pulse.
Pulse width. Measurement of pulse transmission time in microseconds.
Pulse width modulation. Technique to control analog circuits with digital output of a microprocessor.
Charge, also quality.
Instantaneous charge. Instantaneous current is the amount of charge passing through through a conductor at a given time.
- An instrument to measure electromotive force.
- A variable resistor with a third adjustable terminal.
Resistance. The opposition of a resistor to the flow of electric current.
Random access memory. A type of volatile data storage used in computers, tablets, smartphone and other similar electronic devices. All information stored in RAM is lost when the computer or the device is turned off.
Resistance-capacitance, also Radio controlled.
Rectifier. An electrical device that converts AC current into DC current by allowing current to flow through it only in one direction.
Rf / RF
Radio frequencies. Frequencies in the range 104 to 1011 or 1012 Hz, suitable for use in telecommunications.
Radio frequency interference. Disturbance in the radio frequency spectrum, generated by an external source that affects an electrical circuit by electromagnetic induction, electrostatic coupling, or conduction.
Load resistor. A pure resistive load that dissipates power as stated by Ohm’s Law.
Root mean square. The effective voltage or current of an AC wave.
Read only memory. A type of non-volatile data storage used in computers, tablets, smartphone and other similar electronic devices. Information stored in ROM is NOT lost when the computer or the device is turned off.
Revolutions per minute.
Silicon controlled rectifier. A four-layer solid-state current-controlling device.
Super high frequency. Radio frequencies (RF) in the range between 3 and 30 gigahertz (GHz).
Single in-line package. An IC package with just one row of connection pins.
Signal-to-noise ratio. A measure to compare the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise.
Single pole double throw. A switch with single input but can connect to and switch between 2 outputs.
Single sideband. A type of modulation for information transmission such as an audio signal, by radio waves.
Short wave. Radio wave of frequency between 3 to 30 MHz and wavelength between about 10 and 100 m.
Standing-wave ratio. A measure of impedance matching of loads to the characteristic impedance of a transmission line or waveguide.
Synchronous. In electronics, a Synchronous circuit is a self-timed digital circuit.
Tera (1012). A unit prefix in the metric system.
Torque. Force that cause rotation.
Transformer. A device to reduce or increase the voltage of an alternating current (AC).
Time in seconds.
Time constant, also temperature coefficient.
Transverse electric. A mode whose electric field vector is normal to the direction of propagation.
Terahertz (1012). A unit of measurement of frequency.
Transverse magnetic. An electromagnetic wave in which the magnetic field vector is perpendicular to the direction of propagation.
Travelling wave tube.
Ultra high frequency. A radio frequency in the range 300 to 3,000 MHz.
Ultra high voltage. Voltage in the range of 52 kV and 300 kV.
Unijunction transistor. A Transistor with only one junction that acts exclusively as an electrically controlled switch.
Ultraviolet. Radiation with wavelength shorter than that of the violet end of the visible spectrum but longer than that of X-rays.
Vacuum tube. A near-vacuum sealed glass tube which allows free passage of electric current.
Volt. The SI unit of electric potential or electromotive force.
Instantaneous voltage. The value of an AC voltage at a particular time.
Volt ampere. The unit for apparent power in an electrical circuit.
Voltage (average value).
DC voltage base to emitter.
DC voltage collector to emitter.
Voltage controlled oscillator. An electronic oscillator whose oscillation frequency is controlled by input voltage.
Very high frequency. Radio frequency in the range of 30 to 300 megahertz
Very low frequency. Radio frequencies in the range of 3 to 30 kilohertz.
Volt ohm milliammeter. An instrument to measure current on more than one scale.
Voltage standing wave ratio. The ratio of the maximum to minimum voltage on a loss-less line.
Watt. The SI Unit of Power.
Capacitive reactance. The internal resistance of the capacitance to the AC.
Inductive reactance. The opposition to a changing current flow.
Admittance. A measure of how easily a circuit or device allows current to flow.
Impedance. Opposition to the flow of AC Electric Current by electronic component or circuit.
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