Wave Soldering Process, Defects and Diagram
Learn in Detail about Wave Soldering Process, Defects and Diagram.
Here we will Learn about Wave Soldering Process, Defects and Diagram.
Wave Soldering Process
Wave soldering process is used for mass soldering of through-hole Electronic Components to the PCB. Waves of Molten Solder is used in the Process, hence the name wave soldering.
The Process starts once all the through-hole components are placed onto the PCB that moves across on a conveyor belt.
Following are the Steps Involved in the Process:
Flux is sprayed to the PCB to clean the leads of the components and the copper tracks on the PCB. Fluxing removes any oxide that may have deposited on component leads and the PCB Copper Track. This flux can be RA (Rosin Activated), RMA (Rosin Mildly Activated), Water Soluble Flux or No-Clean Flux.
After the Fluxing Zone, the conveyor belt moves to the preheating zone. Here the Board is Preheated to avoid any thermal shock when the Board moves to the Very High Temperature of the Molten Solder Wave.
Step-3: Wave Solder
The Conveyor then moves to the Pan where Solder Waves are formed using a Pump. The Board moves over the Wave and the Lead of the Electronic Components gets Soldered to the PCB.
This step depends on the Type of Flux used during Fluxing. No-Clean Flux from Alpha Cookson do not require any cleaning. However, other types of fluxes need cleaning of the PCBA (Printed Circuit Board Assembly) with solvents and deionized water to remove flux residue
Finally the PCBA undergoes quality test. It is Marked “Passed” or “OK” or “Failed“.
Failed PCBAs then goes for Rework / Repairing.
Video: Wave Soldering Process
Wave Soldering Defects
Pin hole or blow hole defects are major problem during wave soldering.
Both these defects are generally associated with thickness of copper plating. Moisture in the board escapes through either thin copper plating or voids in the plating and forms Pin Hole or Blow Hole Defects.
Read More on: Pin Hole and Blow Hole Soldering defects
Diagram: Wave Soldering Vs Reflow
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