What is Battery | Types of Battery & How Battery Works
Learn in Detail What is Battery – Types of Battery & How Battery Works.
Here we Learn What is Battery, Different Types of Batteries and How it Works.
What is Battery?
A battery is a device with a collection of one or more cells that forces flow of electrons in a circuit through electrochemical reaction. It actually transforms stored chemical energy directly into electrical energy.
All types of batteries have: an anode ( Negative Terminal), a cathode ( Positive Terminal), and some chemical called electrolyte for chemical reaction.
What is a Battery Made of?
Most batteries consists of 3 components: Electrodes, Electrolyte and Separator.
Let us understand about these three components in Detail:
All Batteries have two electrodes and Both play different roles.
One electrode is connected to the positive terminal and is called cathode (+). Electrical current leaves this end during discharge.
The other electrode is connected to the negative terminal and is called anode (–). Electrical current enters this end during discharge.
Electrolyte is present between the two electrodes, as well as inside them. Electrolyte substances contain electrically charged particles called ions.
These ions react with the electrodes that produces electric current or electricity.
A Porous Cardboard Separator keeps the Anode and the Cathode Apart.
How Battery Works
Charge can be separated by several means to produce a voltage. A battery uses a chemical reaction to produce energy and separate opposite charges onto its two terminals.
As the charge is drawn off by an external circuit, doing work and finally returning to the opposite terminal, more chemicals react to restore the charge difference and the voltage.
The type of chemical reaction used determines the voltage of the battery, but for most commercial batteries the voltage is about 1.5 V per chemical section or cell.
Batteries with higher voltages contain multiple cells inside connected together in series. Now you know why there are 3 V, 6 V, 9 V, and 12 V batteries, but no 4V or 7 V batteries.
The current batteries can supply depends on the speed of the chemical reaction supplying charge, which in turn often depends on the physical size of the cell and the surface area of the electrodes.
The size of batteries also limits the amount of chemical reactants stored. During use, the chemical reactants are depleted and eventually the voltage drops and the current stops.
Types of Batteries
Batteries can be classified into two major types –
- Non-Rechargeable (Primary Batteries); and
- Rechargeable (Secondary Batteries)
Non-Rechargeable Battery (Primary Batteries)
Non-Rechargeable or Primary batteries cannot be recharged once depleted. Their electrochemical reaction cannot be reversed. Alkaline batteries are the most popular type of primary battery. They are available in different cell sizes like AA or AAA.
Rechargeable Battery (Secondary Batteries)
In these types of batteries the chemical reaction is reversible: applying an external voltage and forcing a current through the battery, which requires work, reverses the chemical reaction and restores most, but not all, the chemical reactants. This cycle can be repeated many times.
Examples: Lithium-ion(Li-ion) Battery of Mobile Phone, Nickel Cadmium(Ni-Cd), Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH), Lead-Acid Batteries.
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